China’s “Never Again” vs America’s Full Spectrum Dominance by William Poy Lee

Since 9/11, and its “endless wars” aftermath, this prophecy has rung truer and truer.  Which brings me to the contemplation below (with graphics) by Chinese-American writer/thinker William Poy Lee.  What to do with out of control “leaders” who seem unable to fathom healing the world through non-violence rather than horrific global destruction?~AW



Does China have a Cultural DNA “Secret Sauce”? Part 2

William Poy Lee, Esq


Nostradamus, the prophet, 1503-1566, left us many observations about our present time: We would be involved in world wars for nearly two decades; we would become so devastated and wrecked by hunger we would begin to eat each other; we would blow ourselves up by way of a power he could not fathom exactly but could intuit perfectly. Only after this present world is no more would our planet know peace for a thousand years.

What is the Doctrine of Full Spectrum Dominance? There are 3 versions: Military, Economic, and Democratization (also known as Regime Change). This DizN’Dat musing focuses on the military version only. The other 2 Full Spectrum Dominance versions will be described in Part 3, an End-Notes section.

The Military Doctrine of Full Spectrum Dominance

  1. It means that the United States will dominate the war-fighting domains of land, sea, air, outer space, and cyberspace.
  2. It means that within 24 hours of a military decision, the United States will take-down any enemy facility or high value target: a military base, a terrorist cell, or individual. In the case of a nation, it means streaming our combined forces to the target nation and its destruction: a shock-and-awe bombardment followed by invasion.
  3. It means we will design and deploy the most sophisticated matrix of weaponry the world has ever seen.


America has added a new military branch, the Space Force, made official during President Trump’s administration. The South China Sea battle will be guided by integrated communications by our satellites network. The Space Force insignia resembles that of the Star Fleet Command from Star Trek.


The top section of the 2020 budget comparison of Chinese vs. American defense dollars, shows that the US spends just about 4 times what the PRC does (© Al-Jazeera September 2021).


Actually, it’s only within the last few years that China’s annual defense budget reached this magnitude. In contrast, the US war budget automatically receives at least 50% of the annual American budget and is routinely approved by Congress.

Still Congress must release new $Billions to meet “contingencies” – like the actual fighting of a war against Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, or Syria. In other words, the 50% annual budget just keeps the Pentagon doors open for business. But to go fight an actual war, that’s “extra” and the American people must pay extra for that.

Total actual US 2020 expenditures are reflected on the Chart’s lower-right section.

Ranking their Divisional Fighting Weight

But, if it’s a zero-sum fight America power elites want against China, then it may help to rank our relative military divisional powers as boxers do. The US is the undisputed Heavyweight Champ of the world. We’ve held that title since 1945, the end of WWII.

fly-weight chart

After liberation in 1949, China’s Doctrine of People’s War stalled its fighting prowess in the lowly Feather Weight division. Then, Chinese funds were put to better use, to rebuild the infrastructure of a war-ravaged nation.

But catalyzed by the Hainan aircraft incident in the early 2000s, China pumped up its game into Welter Weight military fighting prowess. In the 2010s, China steadily morphed into a Middle Weight military power. Well, at least in terms of defense dollars spent.

But the reality is that China armed forces are untested. China’s two limited punitive “wars” against India (1962) and Vietnam (1979), are no indication of how it will do against America. China’s advance intentionally stopped short of Hanoi, Vietnam’s capitol. But the Vietnamese had fought mano-a-mano against China, kilometer by kilometer. Still, after China’s retreat, Vietnamese troops withdrew from Southeast Asian neighbors, moving to the Chinese border. That was China’s limited goal all along: a punitive strike to stop Vietnam as the Soviet Union’s proxy in Southeast Asia (as Cuba was in Latin America).

So I must ask: “Seriously, can China defend against a Super-Power attack off its own waters?”

The US may have partially answered that, for it is we who regard China as a “Contender,” i.e., someone who can defeat the reigning Heavy Weight Champion. But then, our military-industrial-complex are known for our “threat inflation” to get even more $$$ from Congress.

Yet there is no question that China’s regional capabilities are not to be underestimated. But it may help curb our rabidness if we understood that China fights to protect it’s borders and its regional sphere of influence

China’s Anti-Access/Area-Denial Defensive Strategy (“A2/AD”): China’s A2/AD strategy is rooted in the political doctrine of Preemptive War. President Bush applied this doctrine to justify invading Iraq. A2/AD is also rooted in the Catholic doctrine of Just War. Simply put, it is the common sense notion that if an aggressor nation will be attacking you, you don’t have to wait until the bombing starts. Your are justified to strike first in self-defense. In China’s case, the preemptive strike is to keep the battle far-away from its shores, over the Pacific, and nowhere near the South China Seas..

Once it’s clear that US forces are streaming into East Asia for a show-down:

  • China would incapacitate America’s First Island Chain (the green line): Asian US military bases in Japan, South Korea, Okinawa, and possibly South Korea (Jeju Island and it’s likely subterranean nuclear submarine base).


  • Simultaneously, China will cripple or destroy nearby Aircraft Carrier Battle Groups (“CVBGs”), initially those of the 7th Fleet.
  • Simlutaneous air and sea attacks to cripple or destroy reinforcement US Aircraft Carrier Battle Groups (“CVBG”) while they still between America’s Second Island Chain (the short blue line) and third Island Chain (the red line).
  • Chinese missiles will swarm-target American jets while still over the international waters of the Pacific. That will be followed by Chinese jets dog-fighting America’s most advance jet fighter, the untested J-35 and the time-tested deadly Hornet jet fighter.

But keep in mind that China is not looking for a decisive victory. Just as China didn’t want to occupy Hanoi in their 1979 “punitive” war, it doesn’t want to “defeat” America in the binary sense. It only needs to “punish” America so it stays on its side of the Pacific Ocean fence, i.e., west of Guam and close to Hawaii.

So we may see soon if China’s has modern warfare mettle. And I mean SEE, as on TeeVee, for the South Seas battle would be straight-up good-time, red hot optics on CNN and FOX in all its ratings glory. “Destroyers, missiles, and jets – Oh My!” And the Top 10 hottie battle scenes endlessly replayed and reanalyzed in slo-mo. Guest commentators may be retired 5-star generals, former heads of the CIA, and former Madame Secretaries Albright and Clinton.

Can China FEND OFF the US Military? At first blush, China appears superior in numbers of ships. But it only has 2 untested Aircraft Carrier groups or CVBGs. America has 11 tested CVBGs. America’s Pacific-based 7th Fleet alone comprises 3 aircraft carriers.

china-dominates-south-seas chart

(© Al-Jazeera September 2021).

Moreover, the 3000 Chinese ship are fishing boats, not battleships. If America’s allies join the attack that ups the US naval fire-power mightily. But with the exception of Japan, it remains to be seen which allies will show up. Still, America’s additional CVBGs can make up any shortfall.

So, this chart alone may be misnamed, i.e., until you add this context: China’s Navy is “ALL IN” at home, fighting for its Mother Land. But the US Navy and its allies are “ALL OVER THE MAP,” fighting for a piece of every continent.

In fact, the 7th Fleet itself is a bit “All Over the Map”: its patrol zone stretches from the northern Kuril Islands off Siberia south to Australia and then to Antarctica. Thus, not even our Pacific Fleet is ever “ALL IN” on the contested Chinese coast line.

usni-news map

And that’s America’s weakness, only the 7th Fleet patrols China’s shores. It’s 3 CVBGs and the US bases along the First Island Chain are not a match for China’s “ALL IN” navy, army, and air force.


To invade Iraq, it took America weeks to transport CVBGs, jets, armies, food and fuel supplies there. We burned up even more time constructing bases for them in the Middle East. Only then could we sit down and finalize the invasion plans which finally launched with “Shock & Awe.”

Such a weeks-long time lag gives China the window it needs to execute it’s Preemptive/Just War strike – A2/AD.

We are still talking about a conventional battle here, not about a nuclear missile exchange. China does not have enough ICBM nuclear warheads to start one. At best, Chinese nukes may take out the military complex on Guam (America’s second Island Chain). Here is a 2014 comparison (© India News). The numbers haven’t changed significantly.


world-nuclear-forces chart

Since 2014, China has grown its nuclear warheads. But they are not necessarily “mated,” i.e., attached to an ICBM missile, and thus cannot be launched. Most are intentionally “unmated” due to China’s defensive use doctrine. Only America and Russia has massively “mated” ICBM thermonuclear warheads. Each arsenal alone can obliterate the entire world.

Sun-Tzu is Alive & Well in China: Recently, the western media reported satellite photos of several new Chinese ICBM missile silo sites. Each site resembles an inartfully sliced Swiss cheese but with neatly lined ICBM silos.


So has China magically mated its missile warhead count to say, another 1,000 ICBMs? Not likely, but even those extra ICBMs could not penetrate America’s missile defense shield.

It’s more likely that it’s an old Sun-Tzu Art of War technique: Deception.

You see this deception in historical Chinese movies. The weaker army ignites extra campfires over a wide area, and makes a lot of noise, appearing to have triple the number of troops. At dawn, the second deception: drumming and blaring horns from the rear as riderless horses kick-up sky-high dust. Consternation and confusion reigns in the superior army’s front ranks: split the forces and defend? Or retreat? Or what?

Sun-tzu’s Tactic of Deception is Psych Warfare 101. Create doubt, throw the enemy off its game, and scatter its will.

Thus the silos could well be designed to exaggerate China’s nuclear capability. No one can see inside a silo, right? Maybe nothing there…but then again, mayyyybeeee each has an ICBM, or in every other silo? It gives America pause, perhaps enough pause to stand down until we figure it out.

MIGHT AMERICA GO TACTICAL NUCLEAR BECAUSE IT NEEDS A “WIN”?US military thinkers have not ruled out what are known as “tactical nuclear weapons.” The false claim of tactical nukes is they are more like a super conventional bomb: they “only” devastate strategic sites and small cities with practically no radioactive fall-out. There will be no nuclear winter either. In other words, these mini-nukes are kinder, gentler, “humane” weapons of semi-mass destruction.

If you search or go on the web, it’s surprising the number of US military and Think Tank articles rationalizing their use. Attack by tactical nukes are thus not considered “first use” of a nuclear weapon. Further, these nukes are Ace Cards, tossed down only if the Pentagon thinks we’re not winning the battle. Oh, and it lowers casualties to our “boots-on-the-ground.”

Ask President Obama, already floored by the entire Pentagon War Playbook, and then to read that tactical nukes are in fact conventional weaponry. Like most Americans, he believed as an article of faith that a first strike nuclear attack is not what we decent Americans would ever do. But alarmingly, US military circles treat tactical nukes as conventional weaponry.

This is known as Rebranding. Same old, same old in new packaging.

How does this tactical nukes strategy work? Exactly as nuking Hiroshima and Nagasaki in WWII instead of nuking Tokyo. We needed Tokyo’s leadership alive to surrender unconditionally. Similarly, we won’t target Beijing, but would take out key Chinese military facilities and then advance one-by-one onto second-tier and third-tier Chinese cities, possibly this target list:

  1. Hangzhou (Ali Baba’s HQ)
  2. Chengdu (major wheat belt & BRI city)
  3. Xian (home of the terra-cotta warriors and ancient Chinese capitol)
  4. Wuhan (major Yangtze River river port and to many Americans, it would be a satisfying “poetic justice” hit).

But guess what, our tactical nukes are several times greater in explosive power than the nuclear bombs we dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. So what makes them not a first strike nuclear attack when they are more powerful than those used in 1945?

Anyway, Beijing – can you spell 无条件投降 (unconditional surrender)?


Here’s why America won’t use tactical nukes…Can you spell R-U-S-S-I-A?

China and Russia are co-founders of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (“SCO)”, formed to work out border disputes peacefully after the disintegration of the Soviet Union into new Central Asian countries. SCO’s mission has slowly evolved economically into China’s Belt and Road Initiative and now as a military alliance responding to US military aggression. Coincidentally, Iran’s application for full membership into the SCO was just approved in September of this year.

shanghai-cooperation organization

So, Russia will get China’s back nuclear war-wise, just as its got Syria’s back conventional war-wise, and is slowly getting both of Iran’s backs war-wisde (Israel has mated nuclear warheads).


Now that America has lost Bagram, its last major military complex in the Stans, and there are no US bases there, Central Asia is now 100% SCO territory.

To use George W. Bush’s languaging, America’s new Axis of Evil are China, Russia, and Iran. But to update the languaging from the SCO perspective, let’s call these 3 allies the Fulcrum of Fragile Truce. Perhaps they may conceive a new doctrine – Full Spectrum Cooperation.

The Fulcrum of Fragile Truce has no desire for war in Central Asia. It’s goal is to transform this ancient Silk Route Eurasian corridor into a new economic power, one as consequential as the Tri-lateral powerhouse of the USA, the EU, and Japan dominating the past 75 years.

These three SCO countries regard tactical nukes for what they are – weapons of nuclear war, not of conventional. Russia will not hesitate to pull the trigger of its arsenal if America pulls the trigger on its arsenal. The classic Cold War doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction (“M.A.D.’) puts the brakes on such insane behavior.

At the end of the day, from the Chinese perspective, China will likely damage or sink the 7th Fleet’s 3 aircraft carriers and battleships, and a few submarines. China may down quite a few F-35s (our latest but flawed jet fighter) and perhaps a few Hornet jets in close-in dog-fights. It will hack and crash US computer networks along the First Island Chain and of US satellites. China may even be able to keep most of that battle east of Guam.

At great cost of course because the US military is still the world’s most powerful and will inflict destruction even when held at bay. In the fog of war, anything can happen and who knows what secret weapons the US may have to thwart A2/AD. Laser cannons, anyone?

Likely, the battle will end in a DRAW. But one in which both sides, although bloodied, will remain unbowed. In fact, the US mainstream media will trumpet a technical knock-out (TKO) victory regardless.

But in geopolitical terms, the world will not see it as a draw, but a Chinese win because no nation in the world has ever sunk a single American aircraft carrier nor seriously crippled several CVBGs. China re-asserts its sovereignty over both the South China Seas and the Straits of Taiwan. The Asian Pacific coastline will no longer be the western shore of America’s Post-WWII Pacific Lake. America will keep to its side of the Pacific fence, that is around Hawaii, only as far west as Guam at best, and a much lighter presence on the First Island Chain directly across from China.

If so, this geo-political tectonic shift declares a New Normal. In 1905, the newly modernized Japanese Navy unexpectedly defeated the Russian navy in the Battle of Tsushima. For decades, Czarist Russia considered the Northwestern Pacific coast of Asia as its unquestionable sphere of influence.

old-graphic-depiction of china-warships

Under the 1905 New Normal, it was Japan, not Russia, which ruthlessly colonized Korea, Taiwan, and later invaded northeastern China, creating the puppet state of Manchuria.

Especially following the heels of America’s rout from Afghanistan, this draw can be a good wake-up call for America: i.e., that the emerging Zeitgeist should be Full Spectrum Cooperation, no longer Full Spectrum Dominance. Only a multi-polar world New Normal can resolve the real threats to humankind

  • climate change devastation
  • mushrooming population growth
  • diminishing fresh water sources
  • growing food scarcity
  • pollution of air, land, and sea
  • & vanishing natural habitats.

These are the United Nations’ list of 17 Sustainable Goals. There’s a lot of room here for Full Spectrum Cooperation.



Unfortunately most Americans still believe in our heart of hearts, that the world is our oyster. We were originally driven by a foundational religious delusion that America was a gift to European settlers from the Christian God. As President Reagan put it, from its humble inception as a wilderness outpost, America was a “shining city on a hill.” Later, our God apparently tasked us with mission to take over, civilize, and Christianize Continental America (“Manifest Destiny”).

Much later, that messianic belief extended into the world, with America especially getting the hots for China in the 1800s through 1949, i.e., it was our calling to save the Chinese for Christianity, democracy, science, and free-trade. This is why America naively asserted for decades that America “lost China” to the Atheist Commies. (As laid out in James Bradley’s 2015 book, The China Mirage: The Hidden History of American Disaster in Asia.)


Bradley is best known for his memoir, Flags of our Fathers, and the Clint Eastwood box office hit with the same title. His father, was apparently one of the soldiers who iconically planted the American flag on Iwo Jima in WWII, the major turning point against the Imperial Japanese Army. Americans often think of WWII as America’s Last Good War, the crushing defeat of Fascism in both Europe and Asia. We have not been so sure of the rightness of our many wars since.


Bible-based Exceptionalism to Modern-Day Secular Hubris: Post WWII, exceptionalism secularized into the duty and right to police this unruly world, by force if necessary. We would democratize all nations into 2+ party voting systems with free markets under a US rules-based order. Leading into the second millennium, we rededicated ourselves to this belief and declared The New American Century and proceeded into the Middle East and Afghanistan to do just that – destroy and democratize. Later, even President Obama himself declared America the “indispensable nation. “ It was Obama who authorized US involvement in the 2011 invasion – and as it turned out – the total destruction of a stable Libyan nation. A decade later, Libya is still a medieval, charnal house, replete with Black slave auctions.

Faces of Bush Administration project-for-the-new-american-century


By any means necessary, we will lead the world out of darkness – i.e., Full Spectrum Dominance is the modern day “conversion by the sword.”



Alchemy More Powerful than the last Super Power’s Military Might?


Our super-armies have unexpectedly lost several major wars after the Korean War, which itself ended in a draw.

What explains how an underdeveloped network of tribal societies called Afghanistan defeated Britain, the Soviet Union, and the last Super Power, America?

Vietnam, too, defeated the French (well-armed by America with WWII and Korean War armaments) and then, in turn, defeated America. Vietnam, too only had foot soldiers. But it had such a fierce will of cultural and ethnic identity, an unquenchable thirst for self-determination, and all this organized into an ideological, unbreakable Leninist command structure.

In this way, Vietnam’s liberation war arose to the secular equivalent of a religious crusade – i.e., a secularized Jihad to gloriously die for the freedom of their people, their ancestral land for centuries. Our Pentagon generals were numbed by the ever-rising attrition rate of Vietnamese soldiers. Surely they will surrender anytime now, for no western power could maintain a political will to war with those losses.

Russia is instructive in another way. As the Soviet Union, it lost the Cold War and shrunk down into the Russian Federation. Thus, America brought down this rising Light Heavyweight contender without shock and awe or boots-on-the-ground, but with Reagan promising Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev to integrate Russia fully into the EU economy and the western rules-based system. You will be treated as a friend, not as a defeated enemy.

But the opposite happened. First our Goldman-Sachs types proceeded to exploit its broken economy with Wild West dog-eat-dog Capitalism. This disintegrated Russia’s social structure, creating Oligarchy and vast poverty. Then the US reneged on Russian integration into the EU despite Reagan’s promises. Then, one-by-one, it cherry picked former Eastern Bloc nations to join NATO, with soldiers and weapons facing Russia. This, too, was a broken promise, too, the end of Russia’s Warsaw Pact would be matched by the end of NATO.

To pour even more salt into wounds, the US media narrative portrays Russia as a declining nation: militarily, economically, and more-or-less in free fall towards bending not one, but both knees. To top it all off, western media portrays an ever declining population as rough-hewed men too wasted by bad vodka to perform and unfulfilled beautiful women seeking foreign husbands. This is the proverbial dirty punch below the waist.

So why is it necessary then for the United States to still throw the entire weight of its Full Spectrum Dominance against Russia? And how is it that an faded glory Russia is outfoxing the sole Super Power in the Ukraine, Syria and even chumming up it with our ally, Egypt?

To reframe it, what keeps Russia going and winning, or the Afghans, or the Vietnamese against the full brunt of Full Spectrum Dominance? And perhaps, soon the Chinese, too?

I think the answer is this, a fusion of an ethnic & cultural heritage undergirded by a fierce spiritual foundation of over several millennium. Russia sees being Rus or Russians as an undiluted thousand year ethnic lineage. Russia sees itself as the guardian of Orthodox Christianity faith, the Eastern version of Catholicism, a two thousand year old faith.

Obviously, the nation of modern Israel has that winning combination, too, a five millennial ethnic and religious cultural DNA. It is from them that we get the defiant slogan, “Never Again.”

The ingredients of modern China’s secret sauce

China’s core power lies in it’s Confucianism. Confucianism is the topic of thousands of PhD thesis, and so this musing offers only a quick and dirty nutshell. I would describe Confucianism this way:

  • A 5,000 year fusion of metaphysical spirituality, humanistic philosophy, social organization, & political stability
  • Spiritual rituals are centralized within the family hearth
  • Compassion or secular humanism are superior values
  • Communal or clan centrality valued over radical individualism
  • Educational imperative with love of the four arts: music, game of Go, calligraphy, and brush painting
  • An organizing Philosophy forged in the baptism of fire of the bloody, fratricidal, never-ending war of China’s Warring States period (475–221 BC)

Then undergirding Confucianism is an even more ancient philosophy, the metaphysics of Daoism, life as constantly changing forms, and of cyclical death and resurrection of the Chinese civilization.

Organize all this into a Leninist organizational structure, the singular model that has won liberation wars against superior western forces, but a modernized, technologized, Leninist organization model that shifts gears at a proverbial moment’s notice.

Finally, wrap all this within the exoskeleton of the psychic scars from the brutal blood-and-guts Century of Humiliation.

This is modern China’s “Secret Sauce.”



Is a South China Sea/Taiwan Straits Show-Down inevitable? NO.

In the mid-2010s, the Thucydides Trap was a hot topic, discussed & debated internationally. Even Xi Jinping invited international intellectuals for private discussions of its efficacy. In my humbler teacher’s way, I lectured on it to my Chinese students in my Intro to Modern America class at Beijing Foreign Studies University (celebrating its 80th anniversary this year).

As a reminder, it was the Greek philosopher Thucydides who defined this inexorable historical algorithm based on his analysis of why the reigning Greek city of Sparta, attacked the rising power Athens. This war is remembered as the Pelopponesian Wars.


Sparta won and turned Athens into a puppet state. Later, Macedonia (including Alexander the Great) conquered all the Greek states.

More modernly in the Age of Imperialism, nations snared in this trap include Spain vs Britain, Britain vs France (over & over), Hapsburgs vs the Ottomans, Russia vs Japan in the early 1900s, UK/USA vs. Nazi Germany and USA vs Japan in WWII.

However, the Thucydides Trap is not inexorable. In fact, many great powers carefully avoided it. Portugal and Spain, although bordering states, avoided the trap during their rise as seafaring imperialist powers, for example. The Soviet Union and American managed to avoid a direct war.

So too, American and China can choose to step over the trap of this Philosopher’s theory. But both parties must want to avoid the trap – just as Portugal and Spain did.


Right now, it doesn’t seem as likely as it was in President Obama’s first term, our Nobel Peace Prize winner who sincerely tried hitting the “Reset” button, but then later Pivoted to the East. It certainly didn’t feel that way during President Trump’s administration, whose rhetoric fueled anti-Chinese hate, domestically and internationally. President Biden sends mixed messaging so no one is sure of his strategy nor content of any of our Foreign policies. Or if he is sincere about avoiding war whether any President can stop America’s Military Industrial, Surveillance, & Spy network (“AMISS”).

The American Exceptionalist ego remains very much on the line. WE NEED A BIG-TIME WIN – BADLY & THE SOONER THE BETTER. Unfortunately, that emotional need may be what pushes us over.

Thus in real time, the US continues the confrontational airplane “chicken” game of the 2001 Hainan Incident, only this time its battleship “chicken” in constant FONOPs.

  • It was America’s idea to to file the FONOPs case under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). We are not a signatory, so we convinced the Philippine government, a signatory, to do so. We recruited the Washington DC legal firm, Foley Hoag LLP, to represent the Phillipines.
  • US and China never directly participated in the arbitration.
  • Then after the anticipated ruling, our mighty propaganda machine went overtime, as planned.
  • Now we’ve strong-armed our allies to join us. Even meek and mild Canada just sent a battleship through the Taiwan straits! Why? to once again have the fig leaf of international consensus under yet another good guy banner with the word Freedom prominently across its face – Freedom of NOPs.

But in actuality, it was always our move.

As I use to say to my Chinese students at Beijing Foreign Studies University:

“Yes, please let us fight that economic war. That’s all about brains, hard work, technology, and leveraging your resources. But don’t even think of fighting a shooting war. It’s bloody, destructive, and the suffering lasts years, especially with our modern weapons.” In any modern war, there is no longer any winning.

Asks Momma – “And what am I suppose to do with this crisply folded flag?”

GI Janes and Joes ship home in body bags.

Or survive berserk, lost to violent rages

minds shattered along with limbs

cross-addicted to opioids, meth, crack, and booze

As for our patriotic Presidents – Bush, Obama, Trump, and Biden

their patriotic sons and daughters

do not sign-up to be boots-on-the-ground

in the wars authorized by their Daddies

“Sorry for your loss. But s/he died a hero/ine.”

Asks Momma – “And what am I suppose to do with this crisply folded flag?”

Mother at cemetary place flowers at grave headstone



“Let us pray.” Willam F. Buckley, Jr. 🙏 🙏 🙏

[cc] 2021. William Poy Lee